Deyarmin, J.S., M.C. McCormley, C.D. Champagne, A.P. Stephan, L. Pujade Busqueta, D.E. Crocker, D.S. Houser, and J.I. Khudyakov. Blubber transcriptome responses to repeated ACTH administration in a marine mammal. Scientific Reports (in press).

Hooper, A.W., R.W. Berger, L.S. Rubin, B.I. McDonald, D.E. Crocker. Maternal age influences offspring behavior and growth efficiency during provisioning in northern elephant seals. Animal Behaviour (in press).

Kroeger, C., D.E. Crocker, D.R. Thompson, L.G. Torres, P. Sagar, and S.A. Shaffer. Variation in corticosterone levels in two species of breeding albatrosses with divergent life histories: responses to body condition and drivers of foraging behavior. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology (in press).

Spurlin, S.M., S.H. Peterson, D.E. Crocker, and D.P. Costa. Nitrogen and carbon stable-isotope ratios change in adult northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) during the breeding and molting fasts. Marine Mammal Science (in press).

DeRango, E.J., D.J. Greig, C. Gálvez, T.A. Norris, L. Barbosa, F.R. Elorriaga-Verplancken, and D.E. Crocker. 2019. Response to capture stress involves multiple corticosteroids and is associated with serum thyroid hormone concentrations in Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi). Marine Mammal Science. 35:72-92.

Habran, S., F. Damseaux, P. Pomeroy, C. Debier, D.E. Crocker, G. Lepoint, K. Das. 2018. Changes in stable isotope compositions during fasting in phocid seals. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 33:176-184.

Khudyakov, J.I., J.S. Deyarmin, R.M. Hekman, L. Pujade Busqueta, R. Maan, M. Mody, R. Banerjee, D.E. Crocker and C.D Champagne. 2018. A sample preparation workflow for adipose tissue shotgun proteomics and proteogenomics. Biology Open. 7(11):p.bio036731.

Peterson, S.H., J.T. Ackerman, D.E. Crocker, and D.P. Costa. 2018. Foraging and fasting can influence contaminant concentrations in animals: an example with mercury contamination in a free-ranging marine mammal. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 285:20172782.

Chinn S.M., D.H. Monson, M.T. Tinker, M.M. Staedler, D.E. Crocker. 2018. Lactation and resource limitation affect stress responses, thyroid hormones, immune function and antioxidant capacity of sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Ecology and Evolution. 8: 8433-8447.

Meyer, W.K.,  J. Jamison, R. Richter, S.E. Woods, R. Partha, A.Kowalczyk, C. Kronk, M. Chikina, R.K. Bonde, D.E. Crocker, J.Gaspard, J.M. Lanyon, J. Marsillach, C.E. Furlong, N.L. Clark. 2018. Ancient convergent losses of Paraoxonase 1 yield potential risks for modern marine mammals. Science. 361:591-594.

Champagne, C.D., N.M. Kellar, M.L. Trego, B. Delehanty, R. Boonstra, S.K. Wasser,  R.K. Booth, D.E. Crocker, D.S. Houser. 2018. Comprehensive endocrine response to acute stress in the bottlenose dolphin from serum, blubber, and feces. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 266: 178-193.

McCormley, M.C., C.D. Champagne, J.S. Deyarmin, A.P. Stephan, D.E. Crocker, D.S. Houser, J. I. Khudyakov. 2018. Repeated adrenocorticotropic hormone administration alters adrenal and thyroid hormones in free-ranging elephant seals.  Conservation Physiology. 6(1):coy040; doi:10.1093/conphys/coy040.

Crocker, D.E. 2018. Endocrinology. In: Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine. (ed. F.M.D. Gulland, L.A. Dierauf, K.L. Whitman). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 137-152.

Martinez, B.A., J.I. Khudyakov, K. Rutherford, D.E. Crocker, N. Gemmell and R.M. Ortiz. 2018. Adipose transcriptome analysis provides novel insights into molecular regulation of prolonged fasting in northern elephant seal pups. Physiological Genomics 50:495-503. 

Guerrero-Juarez, C.F. A. A Astrowski, R. Murad, C.T. Dang, V.O. Shatrova, A. Astrowskaja, C.H. Lim, R. Ramos, X. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Lee, K. T. Pham, T. Hsi, J. W. Oh, D.E. Crocker, A. Mortazavi, M. Ito, M.V. Plikus. 2018. Wound regeneration deficit in rats correlates with low morphogenetic potential and distinct transcriptome profile of epidermis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 138:1409-1419.

Fowler, M.A., C.D. Champagne, D.E. Crocker. 2018. Adiposity and fat metabolism during combined fasting and lactation in elephant seals. Journal of Experimental Biology. 221(S1): p.jeb161554.

Abrahms, B., E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, J.S. Brashares , P.W. Robinson, K.L. Scales, D.E. Crocker, D.P. Costa. 2018. Climate mediates the success of individually-specialized migration strategies in a marine predator. Ecology Letters. 21:63-71.

Crocker, D.E., B.K. Wenzel, C.D. Champagne, D.S. Houser. 2017. Adult male northern elephant seals maintain high rates of glucose production during extended breeding fasts. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 187:1183-1192. 

A.F.T. Currylow, T.H. Rafeliarisoa, E.E. Louis, Jr., C.B. Stanford, S.T. Randrianjafizanaka, S.M. Chinn, and D.E. Crocker. 2017. Characterization of seasonal reproductive and stress steroid hormones in wild Radiated Tortoises, Astrochelys radiata. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 253:70-78.

Currylow, A.F. , A. Mandimbihasina , P. Gibbons , E. Bekarany, C.B. Stanford,  E.E. Louis,  and D.E. Crocker. 2017. Comparative ecophysiology of a Critically Endangered (CR) ectotherm: implications for conservation management. PLoS One. 12(8): e0182004.

Jelincic, J.A., M.S. Tift, D.S. Houser, D.E. Crocker. 2017. Variation in adrenal and thyroid hormones with life-history stage in juvenile northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). General and Comparative Endocrinology. 252:111-118.

Martinez, B., M. Scheibner,  J.G. Soñanez-Organis,  J.T. Jaques, D.E. Crocker, and R.M. Ortiz. 2017. Increased sensitivity of thyroid hormone-mediated signaling despite prolonged fasting. General and Comparative Endocrinology 252:36-47.

Beaulieu-McCoy, N.E., K.K. Sherman, M.L. Tregoa, D.E. Crocker, N.M. Kellar. 2017. Initial validation of blubber cortisol and progesterone as indicators of stress response and maturity in an Otariid; The California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus). General and Comparative Endocrinology. 252:1-11.

Ferraro, M.S,  R.R. Decker, D.P. Costa, P.W. Robinson, D.S. Houser, D.E. Crocker. 2017. Evaluating gain functions in foraging bouts using vertical excursions in northern elephant seals. Animal Behaviour 129:15-24..

Olmstead, K.I., M.R. La Frano,  J. Fahrmann, D. Grapov, J.A. Viscarra,  J.W. Newman, O. Fiehn, D.E. Crocker, F.V. Filipp and R.M. Ortiz.  2017. Insulin induces a shift in lipid and primary carbon metabolites in a model of fasting-induced insulin resistance. Metabolomics. 13:60. doi:10.1007/s11306-017-1186-y.

Currylow, A.F., E.E. Louis and D.E. Crocker. 2017. Response to handling is short-lived, but may reflect personalities in a wild, critically endangered tortoise species. Conservation Physiology. 5:cox008. doi:10.1093/conphys/cox008.

Lee, D., B. Martinez, D.E. Crocker, R.M. Ortiz. 2017. Fasting increases the phosphorylation of AMPK and expression of sirtuin1 in muscle of adult male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Physiological Reports. 5:e13114. doi:10.14814/phy2.13114.

Martinez, B.,  J.G. Soñanez-Organis, J.A. Godoy-Lugo, L. Horin, D.E. Crocker, and R.M.Ortiz. 2017. Thyroid hormone stimulated increases in PGC-1α and UCP2 promote life-history specific endocrine changes and maintain a lipid-based metabolism. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 312:189-196.

Khudyakov,  J.I., C.D. Champagne, L. Meneghetti , D.E. Crocker.  2017. Blubber transcriptome response to acute stress axis activation involves transient changes in adipogenesis and lipolysis in a fasting-adapted marine mammal. Scientific Reports 7:42110. doi:10.1038/srep42110.

Champagne, C.D. N.M. Kellar, D.E. Crocker, S.K. Wasser, R.K. Booth, M.L. Trego, D.S. Houser. 2017. Blubber cortisol qualitatively reflects circulating cortisol concentrations in bottlenose dolphins. Marine Mammal Science. 33:134-153.

Ocean Studies Board, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to understanding the cumulative effects of stressors on marine mammals. National Academies Press.

Atkinson, S., D.E. Crocker and R.M Ortiz. 2017. Endocrinology. Revised. Pp. 318- 328. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals . Academic Press, NYC, NY.

Crocker. D.E. and C.D. Champagne. 2017. Pinniped Physiology. Revised. Pp. 726-732. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, NYC, NY.

Peterson M.G., S.H. Peterson, C.  Debier, A. Covaci, A.C. Dirtu, G. Malarvannan, D.E. Crocker, D.P. Costa. 2016. Serum POP concentrations are highly predictive of inner blubber concentrations at two extremes of body condition in northern elephant seals.  Environmental Pollution. 218:651-663.

Codde, S.A., S.G. Allen, D.S. Houser, D.E. Crocker. 2016. Effects of environmental variables on surface temperature of breeding adult female northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, and pups. Journal of Thermal Biology. 61:98-105.

Crocker, D.E., C.D. Champagne, J.I. Khudyakov. 2016. Oxidative stress in northern elephant seals: integration of omics approaches with ecological and experimental studies. Comparative and Biochemical Physiology A. 200:94-103.

Lopez-Cruz, R.I., D.E. Crocker, R. Gaxiola-Robles, J.A. Bernal, R. A. Real, O. Lugo-Lugo, T. Zenteno-Savin. 2016. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase activity in bottlenose dolphins contributes to avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines. Frontiers in Physiology. 7:213:1-8.

Martinez, B., J.G. Soñanez-Organis, J.A. Viscarra, J.T. Jaques, D.S. MacKenzie, D.E. Crocker and R.M. Ortiz. 2016. Glucose delays the insulin-induced increase in thyroid hormone-mediated signaling in adipose of prolong-fasted elephant seal pups. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 310:502-512.

Peck, H.E., D.P. Costa, D.E. Crocker. 2016. Body reserves influence allocation to immune responses in capital breeding female northern elephant seals. Functional Ecology. 30:386-397.

Fowler, M.A.,  C. Debier, C.D. Champagne, D.E. Crocker, D.P. Costa. 2016. The demands of lactation promote differential regulation of lipid stores in fasting elephant seals. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 225:125-132.

Costa, D.P., L. Schwarz, P. Robinson, R.S. Schick,P.A. Morris, R. Condit, D.E. Crocker, A. M. Kilpatrick. 2016. A bioenergetics approach to understanding the population consequences of disturbance: elephant seals as a model system. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 875:161-169.

Houser, D.S., C.D. Champagne, D.E. Crocker, N.M. Kellar, J. Cockrem. T. Romano, R.K. Booth, S.K. Wasser. 2016. Natural variation in stress hormones, comparisons across matrices, and impacts resulting from induced stress in the bottlenose dolphin. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 875:467-471.

Louis, C., A. Covaci, D.E. Crocker, C. Debier. 2016. Lipophilicity of PCBs and fatty acids determines their mobilisation from blubber of weaned northern elephant seal pups. Science of the Total Environment. 541: 599-602.  

Crocker, D.E. and B.I. McDonald. 2015. Post-partum. In: Marine Mammal Physiology: Requisites for Ocean Living. eds. M.A. Castellini and J.A.E. Mellish. CRC Press. pp. 219-244.

Maresh, J.L., T. Adachi, A. Takahashi, Y. Naito, D.E. Crocker, M. Horning, T.M. Williams and D.P. Costa. 2015. Summing the strokes: energy economy in northern elephant seals during large-scale foraging migrations. Movement Ecology 3:22. doi: 10.1186/s40462-015-0049-2.

Khudyakov J.I., C.D. Champagne, L. Preeyanon, R.M. Ortiz, D.E. Crocker. 2015. Muscle transcriptome response to ACTH administration in a free-ranging marine mammal. Physiological Genomics. 47:318-330.

Somo, D.A., D.C. Ensminger, J.T. Sharick, S.B. Kanatous, and D.E. Crocker. 2015. Body reserves at weaning impact development of dive capacity in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 88:471-482.

Lawson, G.L.,  L.A. Hückstädt, A.C. Lavery, F.M. Jaffré, P.H. Wiebe, J.R. Fincke, D.E. Crocker and D.P. Costa. 2015. Development of an animal-borne 'sonar tag' for quantifying prey availability: test deployments on northern elephant seals. Animal Biotelemetry. 3:22 doi: 10.1186/s40317-015-0054-7.

Barjau-Pérez Milicua, M.,T. Zenteno-Savín, D.E. Crocker, J.P. Gallo-Reynoso. 2015. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa). Frontiers in Physiology. 6:212. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2015.00212.

Peterson, S.H., M.G. Peterson, C. Debier, A. Covaci, A.C. Dirtu, G. Malarvannan, D.E. Crocker, L. Schwarz, and D.P. Costa. 2015. Deep-ocean foraging northern elephant seals bioaccumulate persistent organic pollutants. Science of the Total Environment. 533:144-155.

Atkinson, S., D.E. Crocker, D.S. Houser, K.L. Mashburn. 2015. Stress physiology in marine mammals:  How well do they fit the terrestrial model? Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 5:463-486.

Suzuki, M., A. Lee, J.P. Vázquez-Medina, J.A. Viscarra, D.E. Crocker, R.M. Ortiz. 2015. Plasma FGF21 concentrations and adipose fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 and  β-klotho expression decrease with fasting in northern elephant seals. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 216:86-89.

Moore, C.D., A. Fahlman, D.E. Crocker, K.A. Robbins and S.J. Trumble. 2015. The degradation of proteins in pinniped skeletal muscle: viability of post-mortem tissue in physiological research. Conservation Physiology.  3(19):1-8. doi: 10.1093/conphys/cov019.

Louis, C., M.S. Tift, D.E. Crocker, D. Alexander, D.R. Smith, C. Debier. 2015. Isolation of progenitor cells from the blubber of northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in order to obtain an in vitro adipocyte model – preliminary results. Marine Mammal Science 31:764-773.

Fowler, M.A., D.P. Costa, D.E. Crocker, W. Shen, F.B. Kraemer. 2015. Adipose triglyceride lipase, not hormone sensitive lipase, is the primary lipolytic enzyme in fasting elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 88:284-294.

Sharick, J.T., J.P. Vazquez-Medina, R.M. Ortiz, D.E. Crocker.  2015. Oxidative stress is a potential cost of breeding in male and female northern elephant seals. Functional Ecology. 29:367-376.

Champagne, C.D., M.S. Tift, D.S. Houser, D.E. Crocker. 2015. Adrenal sensitivity to stress is maintained despite variation in baseline glucocorticoids in molting seals. Conservation Physiology. 3(4):1-11. doi: 10.1093/conphys/cov004.

Khudyakov J.I., L. Preeyanon, C.D. Champagne, R.M. Ortiz, D.E. Crocker. 2015.Transcriptome analysis of northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) muscle tissue provides a novel molecular resource and physiological insights. BMC Genomics. 16:64.


Louis, C., L. Perdaens, S. Suciu, S.K. Tavoni, D.E. Crocker, C. Debier. 2015. Mobilisation of blubber fatty acids of northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris) during the post-weaning fast. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 183: 78-86.


Louis, C., A. Covaci, M. Stas, D.E. Crocker, G. Malarvannan, A.C. Dirtu, C. Debier. 2015. Bioaccumulation of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls and pentachlorophenol in the serum of northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris). Environmental Research. 136: 441-448.

Chicco, A.J., C.H. Le, A.E. Schlater, A.D. Nguyen, S.D. Kaye, J.W. Beals, R.L. Scalzo, C. Bell, E. Gnaiger, D.P. Costa, D.E. Crocker, and S.B. Kanatous. 2014. High fatty acid oxidation capacity and phosphorylation control despite elevated leak and reduced respiratory capacity in northern elephant seal muscle mitochondria. Journal of Experimental Biology. 217: 2947-2955.

Moore, C.D., D.E. Crocker, A. Fahlman, M.J. Moore, D.S Willoughby, K. Robbins, S.B. Kanatous, S.J. Trumble. 2014. Ontogenetic changes in skeletal muscle fiber type, fiber diameter and myoglobin concentration in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Frontiers in Physiology. 5:217:1-5. doi: 10.3389/ fphys.2014.00217.

Louis, C., A.C. Dirtu, M. Stas, Y. Guiot, G. Malarvannan, K. Das; D.P Costa, D.E Crocker,  A. Covaci, C. Debier. 2014. Mobilization of lipophilic pollutants from blubber in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris) during the post-weaning fast. Environmental Research. 132: 438-448.

Tift, M.S., P.J. Ponganis, and D.E. Crocker. 2014. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin in a marine mammal, the northern elephant seal. Journal of Experimental Biology. 217: 1752-1757.

Maresh, J.L., S.E. Simmons, D.E. Crocker , B.I. McDonald, T.M. Williams, and D.P. Costa. 2014. Free-swimming northern elephant seals have low field metabolic rates that are sensitive to an increased cost of transport. Journal of Experimental Biology. 217:1485-1495.

Peterson, S.H., J.L. Hassrick, A. Lafontaine, J. Thomé, D.E. Crocker, C. Debier, D.P. Costa. 2014. Effects of age, adipose percent, and reproduction on PCB concentrations and profiles in an extreme fasting North Pacific marine mammal. PLoS One 9(4): e96191.

Spraker, T.R., E.T. Lyons, T.A. Kuzmina, M.S. Tift, S. Raverty, N. Jaggi, D.E. Crocker. 2014. Causes of death in preweaned northern elephant seal pups. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 26:320-326.

López-Cruz, R.I., M.B. Pérez-Milicua, D.E. Crocker, R. Gaxiola-Robles, J. Bernal, A. de la Rosa, J. P. Vázquez-Medina, T. Zenteno-Savín. 2014. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase and xanthine oxidase activities in erythrocytes and plasma from marine, semiaquatic and terrestrial mammals. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 171:31-35.

Crocker. D.E., C.D. Champagne, M.A. Fowler, and D.S. Houser.  2014. Adiposity and fat metabolism in lactating and fasting northern elephant seals. Advances in Nutrition. 1: 57-64.

Fowler, M.A., C. Debier, E. Mignolet, C. Lignard, D.E. Crocker, D P. Costa.  2014. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 184: 125-135.

Ensminger, D.C., D.A. Somo, D.S. Houser, D.E. Crocker. 2014. Metabolic responses to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) vary with life-history stage in adult male northern elephant seals. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 204:150-157.

Crocker, D.E. M.A. Fowler, C.D. Champagne, A.L. Vanderlugt and D.S. Houser. 2014. Metabolic response to a glucagon challenge varies with adiposity and life-history stage in fasting northern elephant seals. General and Comparative Endocrinology 195:99-106.

Martinez, B., J.G. Soñanez-Organis,  J.P. Vázquez-Medina, J.A. Viscarra, D.S. MacKenzie, D.E. Crocker, and R.M. Ortiz. 2013. Prolonged food deprivation increases mRNA expression of deiodinase 1 & 2, and thyroid hormone receptor β-1 in a fasting-adapted mammal. Journal of Experimental Biology. 4647-4654.

Houser, D.S. C.D. Champagne and D.E. Crocker.  2013. A non-traditional model of the metabolic syndrome: the adaptive significance of insulin resistance in fasting-adapted seals. Frontiers in Endocrinology 4:1-10.

Costa, D.P.,  D.S. Houser, and D.E. Crocker, and. 2013. Fundamentals of water relations and thermoregulation in animals. Nature Encyclopedia of Life Sciences.10.1002:1-12.

Tift, M.S. E.L. Ranalli, D.S. Houser, R.M. Ortiz, and D.E. Crocker. 2013. Development enhances hypometabolism in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris). Functional Ecology. 27:1155-1165.

Hassrick, J.L., D.E. Crocker, and D.P. Costa. 2013. Effects of maternal age and mass on foraging behavior and foraging success in the northern elephant seal.Functional Ecology. 27:1055-1063.

M. Suzuki, J.P. Vázquez-Medina, J.A Viscarra, J.G. Soñanez- Organis, D.E. Crocker, and R.M. Ortiz. 2013. Activation of systemic, but not local, renin-angiotensin system is associated with up-regulation of TNF-α during prolonged fasting in northern elephant seal pups. Journal of Experimental Biology. 216:3125-3221.

J.G. Soñanez-Organis, J.P. Vázquez-Medina, D.E. Crocker and R.M. Ortiz. 2013. Prolonged fasting activates hypoxia inducible factor -1α, -2α and -3α in a tissue-specific manner in northern elephant seal pups. Gene. 526:155-163.

Vàzquez-Medina, J.P., J.G. Soñanez-Organis, R.Rodriguez, J.A. Viscarra, A. Nishiyama, D.E. Crocker, and R.M. Ortiz. 2013. Prolonged fasting activates Nrf2 in postweaned elephant seals. Journal of Experimental Biology.  216:2870-2878.

Tavoni, S.K., C.D. Champagne, D.S. Houser and D.E. Crocker. 2013. Lactate flux and gluconeogenesis in fasting, weaned northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 4:537-546.

Champagne, C.D., S.M Boaz, M.A Fowler, D.S. Houser, D.P. Costa. and D.E Crocker. 2013. A profile of carbohydrate metabolites in the fasting northern elephant seal. Journal of Comparative Physiology D. 8:141-151.

Currylow, A.F., M.S. Tift, J.L. Meyer, D.E. Crockerand R.N. Williams. 2013. Seasonal variations in plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids in male and female eastern box turtles, Terrapene c. carolina. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 180: 48-55.

Viscarra, J.A., R. Rodriguez, J.P. Vazquez-Medina, A. Lee, M.S. Tift, S.K. Tavoni, D.E. Crocker, and R.M. Ortiz. 2013. Insulin and GLP-1 infusions demonstrate the onset of adipose-specific insulin resistance in a large fasting mammal: potential glucogenic role for GLP-1. Physiological Reports. 1(2): 1-14.

Houser, D.S., D.E. Crocker, M.S. Tift and C.D. Champagne. 2012. Glucose oxidation and non-oxidative glucose disposal during prolonged fasts of the northern elephant seal pup (Mirounga angustirostris). American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 303: 562-570.

Habran, S., D.E. Crocker, C. Debier and K. Das. 2012. How are trace elements mobilized during the post-weaning fast in northern elephant seals? Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 212: 2354-2365.

Crocker, D.E., D.S. Houser, and P.M. Webb. 2012. Impact of body reserves on energy expenditure, water flux, and mating success in breeding male northern elephant seals. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 85:11-20.

Champagne, C.D., D.S. Houser, M.A. Fowler, D.P. Costa, and D.E. Crocker. 2012. Gluconeogenesis is associated with high rates of tricarboxylic acid and pyruvate cycling in fasting northern elephant seals. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 303:340-352.

E.J. Kelso, C.D. Champagne,  M.S. Tift, D.S. Houser and D.E. Crocker. 2012. Sex differences in fuel use and metabolism during development in fasting juvenile northern elephant seals. Journal of Experimental Biology. 215: 2637-2645.

Houser, D.S., L.C. Yeates, D.E. Crocker, S.W. Martin, J.J. Finneran. 2012. Controlled exposure study of dolphins and sea lions to midfrequency sonarlike signals.Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 730:269-72.

Viscarra, J., J.P. Vázquez-Medina, R. Rodriguez, C.D. Champagne, S.H. Adams, D.E. Crocker, and R.M. Ortiz. 2012. Decreased expression of adipose CD36 and FATP1 are associated with increased plasma nonesterified fatty acids during prolonged fasting in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Experimental Biology. 215: 2455-2464.

Maxwell, S.M. J.J. Frank, G.A. Breed, P.W. Robinson, S.E. Simmons, D.E. Crocker, J.P. Gallo-Reynoso, and D.P. Costa.  2012. Benthic foraging on seamounts: a specialized foraging behavior in a deep diving marine mammal. Marine Mammal Science. 28: E333-E344.

Debier C., D.E. Crocker, D.S. Houser, M. Vanden Berghe,  M. A. Fowler, E.  Mignolet, T. de Tillesse, J.F. Rees, J.P Thomé,  Y. Larondelle. 2012. Differential changes of fat-soluble vitamins and pollutants during lactation in northern elephant seal mother-pup pairs. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 162:323-330.

Champagne, C.D., D.S. Houser, D.P. Costa, and D.E. Crocker. 2012. The effects of handling and anesthetic agents on the stress response and carbohydrate metabolism in northern elephant seals. PLoS ONE. 7(5): e36728. 

Hückstädt, L.A., P.L. Koch, J.M. Burns, D.E. Crocker and D.P. Costa. 2012. Being a specialist in a changing environment: the diet of the crabeater seal along the western Antarctica Peninsula. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 455: 287-301. 

Champagne, C.D., D.E. Crocker, M.A. Fowler and D.S. Houser. 2012. Fasting physiology of the pinnipeds: the challenges of fasting while maintaining high energy expenditure and nutrient delivery for lactation. In: The Comparative Physiology of Starvation, Fasting and Food Limitation. (ed. M.D. McCue). Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 309-336. 

Robinson, P.W., D.P. Costa, D.E. Crocker, J.P. Gallo-Reynoso, C.D. Champagne, M.A. Fowler, C. Goetsch, K.T. Goetz, J.L. Hassrick, L.A. Huckstadt, C.E. Kuhn, J.L. Maresh, S.M. Maxwell, B.I.
McDonald, S.H. Peterson, S.E. Simmons, N.M. Teutschel, S.Villegas-Amtmann, K. Yoda. 2012. Foraging behavior and success of a mesopelagic predator in the northeast Pacific Ocean:  insights from a data-rich species, the northern elephant seal. PLoS One. 7(5): e36728. 

Hückstädt, L.A., P.L. Koch, B.I. McDonald,, M.E. Goebel, D.E. Crocker and D.P. Costa. 2012. Stable isotope analyses reveal individual variability in the trophic ecology of a top marine predator, the southern elephant seal. Oecologia. 169:395-406.

McDonald, B.I., M.E. Goebel, D.E. Crocker, and D.P. Costa. 2012. Dynamic influence of maternal and pup traits on maternal care during lactation in an income breeder, the Antarctic fur seal. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 85: 243-254.

Soñanez-Organis, J.G., J.P. Vázquez-Medina, T. Zenteno-Savin, A. Aguilar A, D.E. Crocker, and R.M. Ortiz. 2012. Prolonged fasting increases purine recycling in postweaned northern elephant seals. Journal of Experimental Biology. 215:1448-1455.

McDonald, B.I., M.E. Goebel, D.E. Crocker, and D.P. Costa. 2012. Biological and environmental drivers of energy allocation in a dependent mammal, the Antarctic fur seal pup. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 85:134-147.

Crocker, D.E.,  R.M. Ortiz, D.S. Houser, P.M. Webb and D.P. Costa. 2012. Hormone and metabolite changes associated with extended breeding fasts in male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 161:388-394.

Boaz, S.M., C.D. Champagne, M.A Fowler, D.S. Houser, and D.E. Crocker. 2012. Water-soluble vitamin homeostasis in fasting northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) measured by metabolomics analysis and standard methods. Journal of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 161:114-121.

Lyons, E.T., T. Kuzmina, T.R. Spraker, N. Jaggi, D.P. Costa, D.E. Crocker, and M.S. Tift. 2012. Parasitological examination for presence of hookworms (Uncinariaspp.) in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at Año Nuevo State Reserve, California. Parasitology Research. 111:1847-1850

Houser, D.S., L.C. Yeates, and D.E. Crocker. 2011. Cold stress induces an adrenocortical response in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 42(4): 565-571.

Vázquez-Medina, J.P., T. Zenteno-Savín, M.S. Tift, H.J. Forman, D.E. Crocker, and R.M. Ortiz. 2011. Apnea stimulates the adaptive response to oxidative stress in elephant seal pups.  Journal of Experimental Biology. 214: 4193-4200.

Habran, S., C. Debier, D.E. Crocker, D.S. Houser, and K. Das. 2011. Blood dynamics of mercury and selenium in northern elephant seals during the lactation period.Environmental Pollution. 159:2523-2529.

Aoki, K.Y., Y. Watanabe, D.E. Crocker, P.W. Robinson, M. Biuw, D.P. Costa, N. Miyazaki, M.A. Fedak, and P.J.O. Miller. 2011. Northern elephant seals adjust gliding and stroking patterns with changes in buoyancy: validation of at-sea metrics of body density. Journal of Experimental Biology. 214:2973-2987.

Tift, M.S., D.S. Houser, D.E. Crocker. 2011. High-density lipoprotein remains elevated despite reductions in total cholesterol in fasting adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. 159:214-219.

Viscarra, J., C.D. Champagne, D.E. Crocker, and R.M. Ortiz. 2011. 5-AMP-activated protein kinase activity is increased in adipose tissue of northern elephant seal pups during prolonged fasting-induced insulin resistance. Journal of Endocrinology. 209:317-325.

Vázquez-Medina, J.P., T. Zenteno-Savin, H.J. Forman, D.E. Crocker and R.M. Ortiz. 2011. Prolonged fasting increases glutathione synthesis in post-weaned elephant seals. Journal of Experimental Biology. 214:1294-1299.

Viscarra, J., J.P. Vazquez-Medina, D.E. Crocker, and R.M. Ortiz. 2011. Glut4 is upregulated despite decreased insulin signaling during prolonged fasting in northern elephant seal pups. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 300:R1501-R154.

Norris, A.L., D.S. Houser, D.E. Crocker. 2010. Environment and activity affect skin temperature in breeding adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).Journal of Experimental Biology. 213: 4205-4212.

Costa, D.P. L. Huckstadt, D.E. Crocker, B.I. McDonald, M.E. Goebel, M.A. Fedak. 2010. Approaches to studying climatic change and its role in the habitat selection of Antarctic pinnipeds. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 50(6): 1018-1030.

Habran, S., C. Debier, D.E. Crocker, D.S. Houser, G. Lepoint, J. Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie and K. Das. 2010. Assessment of the gestation, lactation and fasting effects on stable isotope ratios in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Marine Mammal Science. 26(4):880-895.

Robinson, P.W., S.E. Simmons, D.E. Crocker, and D.P. Costa. 2010. Measurements of foraging success in a highly pelagic marine predator, the northern elephant seal. Journal of Animal Ecology. 79(6):1146-1156.

M.A. Hindell, D.E. Crocker, Y. Mori, and P. Tyack. 2010. Foraging behavior. In: Marine Mammal Ecology and Conservation: A Handbook of Techniques. (eds. I.L. Boyd, W.D. Bowen, and S.J. Iverson). Oxford University Press, London, pp. 243-262.

Vázquez-Medina, J.P., D.E. Crocker, H. J. Forman, and R. M. Ortiz. 2010. Prolonged fasting does not increase oxidative damage or inflammation in postweaned northern elephant seal pups. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2524-2530.

Simmons, S.E., D.E. Crocker, J.L. Hassrick, C.E. Kuhn, P.W. Robinson, Y. Tremblay and D. P. Costa. 2010. Climate scale hydrographic features related to foraging success in a capital breeder: the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Endangered Species Research. 10:233-243.

Costa, D.P, P.W. Robinson, J. P.Y. Arnould, A. Harrison, S. E. Simmons, J. L. Hassrick, A. Hoskins, S. Kirkman, H. Oosthuizen, S. Villegas-Amtmann and D.E. Crocker. 2010. Accuracy of ARGOS locations of pinnipeds at-sea estimated using Fastloc GPS. PLoS ONE. 5(1):e8677 .

Hassrick, J.L., D.E. Crocker, N.M Teutschel, B.I. McDonald, P.W. Robinson, S.E. Simmons and D.P. Costa. 2010. Condition and mass impact oxygen stores and dive duration in female northern elephant seals. Journal of Experimental Biology. 213:585-592.

McDonald B.I., M.E. Goebel, D.E. Crocker, Y. Tremblay, D.P. Costa. 2009. Impacts of maternal traits, environment, and individual behavior on foraging strategies and provisioning of an income breeder, the Antarctic fur seal. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 394: 277-276.

C.E. Kuhn, D.E. Crocker, Y. Tremblay, and D. P. Costa. 2009. Measurements of feeding behavior in a large marine predator, the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Animal Ecology . 78: 513-523

Crocker, D.E. and D.P. Costa.  Pinniped Physiology. 2008. Revised. Pp. 873-878. In: The Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. New York.

Fowler, M.A., C.D. Champagne, D.S. Houser, and D.E. Crocker. 2008. Hormonal regulation of glucose clearance in lactating northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Experimental Biology. 211:2943-2949.

Houser, D. S., D.E. Crocker, and J.J. Finneran. 2008. Click-evoked potentials in a large marine mammal, the adult male northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 124(1): 44-47.

McDonald, B.I., D.E. Crocker, J.M Burns, and D.P. Costa. 2008. Body condition as an index of winter foraging success in crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaga). Deep Sea Research II. 55:515-522.

Zeno, R.A., D.E. Crocker, J.S. Hassrick, S.A. Allen, and D.P. Costa. 2008. Development of foraging behavior in juvenile northern elephant seals. Journal of Zoology.274: 180-187.

Houser, D.S., C.D. Champagne, and D.E. Crocker.  2007. Lipolysis and glycerol gluconeogenesis in simultaneously fasting and lactating northern elephant seals. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 293:R2376-R2381.

Crocker, D.E., N. Kofahl, G.D. Fellers, N.B.Gates and D.S. Houser. 2007. High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free ranging Pt. Reyes mountain beavers.Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 80(6): 635-642.

Simmons, S.E., D.E. Crocker, R.M. Kudela, and D.P. Costa. 2007. Linking foraging behaviour with oceanography and bathymetry at mesoscales in the northern elephant seal. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 346:265-275.

Debier, C., D.E. Crocker, D.S. Houser, V. Xhonneux, J.P. Thome. 2007. Organochlorines and lactation : mobilization and transfer to offspring in northern elephant seals. Organohalogen Compounds 69: 833-836

Biuw, M., L. Boehme, C. Guinet, M. Hindell, D. Costa, J-B. Charrassin, F. Roquet, F. Bailleul, M. Meredith, S. Thorpe, Y. Tremblay, B. McDonald, Y-H. Park, S.Rintoul, N. Bindoff, M. Goebel, D.Crocker, P. Lovell, J. Nicholson, F. Monks and M.Fedak. 2007. Variations in behaviour and condition of a Southern Ocean top predator in relation to in-situ oceanographic conditions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104(34): 13705-13710.

Houser, D.S., D.E. Crocker, C. Kastak, J. Mulsow, and J.J. Finneran. 2007. Auditory evoked potentials in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Aquatic Mammals. 33(1): 110-121.

Robinson, P.W., Y. Tremblay, M. Antolos, D.E. Crocker, C.E. Kuhn, S.A. Shaffer, S. E. Simmons, and D.P. Costa. 2007. A comparison of ARGOS-tracking-based indirect measures of foraging behavior. Deep Sea Research II. 54:356-368.

Hassrick, J.L., D. E. Crocker, R. L. Zeno, S.B. Blackwell, D.P. Costa, and B. J. LeBoeuf. 2007. Swimming speed and foraging strategies of northern elephant seals. Deep Sea Research II. 54:369-383.

Ortiz, R.M., D.E. Crocker, D.S. Houser and P.M. Webb.  2006. Angiotensin II and Aldosterone increase with fasting in breeding adult male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 79(6):1106-1112.

Champagne, C.D., D.S. Houser, D.E. Crocker. 2006. Glucose metabolism during lactation in a fasting animal, the northern elephant seal. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 291:R1129-R1137.

McDonald, B.I. and D.E. Crocker. 2006. Physiology and behavior impact lactation efficiency in northern elephant seals. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology.79(3):484-496.

Tremblay, Y., S.A. Shaffer, S.L. Fowler, C.E. Kuhn, B.I. McDonald, M.J. Weise, C. Bost, H. Weimerskirch, D.E. Crocker, M.E. Goebel, and D.P. Costa. 2006. Interpolation of animal tracking data in a fluid environment. Journal of Experimental Biology. 209: 128-140.

Crocker, D.E., D.P. Costa, B.J. Le Boeuf, P.M. Webb and D.S. Houser. 2006. Impact of El Nino on the foraging behavior of female northern elephant seals. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 309:1-10.

Kuhn, C.E., B.I. McDonald, S.A. Shaffer, J. Barnes, D E. Crocker, J. Burns, D.P. Costa. 2006. Diving physiology and winter foraging behavior of a juvenile leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx). Polar Biology. 29(4):303-307.

Thornton, S.J., P.W. Hochachka, D.E. Crocker, D.P. Costa, B.J. LeBoeuf, D.M. Spielman and N.J. Pelc. 2005. Stroke volume and cardiac output in juvenile elephant seals during forced dives. Journal of Experimental Biology. 208: 3637-3643.

Le Boeuf, B.J. and D.E. Crocker. 2005. Ocean climate and seal condition. BMC Biology. 3:9.

Champagne, C.D. D.S. Houser and D.E. Crocker. 2005. Glucose production and substrate cycle activity in a fasting adapted animal, the northern elephant seal.Journal of Experimental Biology. 208:859-868.

Houser, D.S., D.E. Crocker, and D.P. Costa.  2004. Ecology of Water Relations and Thermoregulation. Nature Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. 10.1038:1-8.

Houser, D.S. and D.E. Crocker. 2004. Age, sex, and reproductive state influence free amino acid concentrations in the fasting elephant seal. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 77(5):838-846.

Burns, J.M. D. P. Costa, M. A. Fedak, C. J. A. Bradshaw, M. A. Hindell, N. Gales, G. McDonald, S. J. Trumble, D. E. Crocker. 2004. Winter habitat use and foraging behavior of crabeater seals along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Deep-Sea Research II 51:2279-2303.

Noren, D.P, D. E. Crocker, T. M. Williams and D. P. Costa.  2003. Energy reserve utilization in northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups during the postweaning fast: size does matter. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 173:443-454.

Costa, D.P., D.E. Crocker, J. Gedamke, P.M. Webb, D.S. Houser, S.B. Blackwell, D. Waples, S.A. Hayes, and B.J. Le Boeuf. 2002. The effect of a low frequency sound source (ATOC) on the diving behavior of northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 113(2):1155-1165.

Boehlert, G.W, P. Green-Jessen, D.P. Costa. D.E. Crocker. T. O'Brien, and S. Levitus. 2002. Marine animals as oceanographic data collectors. Earth System Monitor.12(4): 1-4.

Crocker.D.E ., J.D. Williams, D.P. Costa, and B.J. Le Boeuf. 2001. Maternal traits and reproductive effort in northern elephant seals. Ecology. 82(12):3451-3555.

Boehlert, G.W., D. P. Costa, D. E. Crocker, P. Green, T. O'Brien, S. Levitus, and B. J. Le Boeuf. 2001. Autonomous Pinniped Environmental Samplers; Using Instrumented Animals as Oceanographic Data Collectors. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. 18 (11): 1882-1893.

Crocker, D.E. and D.P. Costa. Pinniped Physiology. 2001. Pp. 926-931. In: The Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. New York.

Thornton, S.J., D.M. Speilman, N.J. Pelc, W.F. Block, D.E. Crocker, D.P. Costa, B.J. Le Boeuf, and P.W. Hochachka. 2001. Effects of forced diving on the spleen and hepatic sinus in northern elephant seals pups. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 98(16):9413-9418.

Crocker, D.E., N.J. Gales, D.P. Costa. 2001. Swimming speed and foraging strategies of New Zealand sea lions. Journal of Zoology, London. 254:267-277.

Houser, D. S., D.E. Crocker, P.M. Webb, and D.P. Costa. 2001. Renal function in suckling and fasting pups of the northern elephant seal. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A.129:405-415.

Goebel, M. E., D. P. Costa, D.E. Crocker, J.T. Sterling, and D.A. Demer.  2000. Foraging range and dive patterns in relation to location of Antarctic fur seals, Cape Shirreff, Livingston Island, Antarctica. Pages 47-50 in Antarctic Ecosystem: Models for Wider Ecological Understaning. Eds W. Davison, C. Howard-Williams & P. Brady Caxton Press, New Zealand.

Le Boeuf, B.J., D.E. Crocker, J. Grayson, J. Gedamke, S.B. Blackwell, P.M. Webb, and D.P. Costa. 2000. Surface breathing rate and heart rate in free-ranging elephant seals. Journal of Experimental Biology.203: 3265-3274.

Le Boeuf, B.J., D.E. Crocker, D.P. Costa, S.B. Blackwell, P.M. Webb, and D.S. Houser. 2000. Foraging ecology of northern elephant seals. Ecological Monographs.70(3): 353-382.

Costa, D.P. and D.E. Crocker.  1999. Seals (Pinnipedia). In: The Encyclopedia of Reproduction, Volume 4, ed. Knobil, E. and Neill, J.D. Academic Press. New York. pp. 313-321.

Costa, D.P. and D.E. Crocker. 1999. Whales and Porpoises (Cetacea). In: The Encyclopedia of Reproduction, Volume 4, ed. Knobil, E. and Neill, J.D. Academic Press. New York. pp. 1015 - 1020.

Crocker, D.E., P.M. Webb, D.P. Costa, and B.J. Le Boeuf.  1998. Protein catabolism and renal function in lactating northern elephant seals. Physiological Zoology.71(5):485 - 491.

Webb, P.M., D.E. Crocker , S.B. Blackwell, D.P. Costa, and B.J. Le Boeuf. 1998. The effects of buoyancy on the diving behavior of northern elephant seals. Journal of Experimental Biology. 201:2349 - 2358.

Costa, D.P., N.J. Gales, and D.E. Crocker. 1998. Blood volume and diving ability of the New Zealand Sea Lion, Phocarctos hookei. Physiological Zoology 71:208 - 213.

Costa, D.P., D.E. Crocker, D.M. Waples, P.M. Webb, J. Gedamke, D. Houser, P.D. Goley, B.J. Le Boeuf, and J. Calambokidis. 1998. The California Marine Mammal Research Program of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate experiment: Potential effects of low frequency sound on distribution and behavior of marine mammals. Taking a Look at California's Ocean Resources: An Agenda for the Future, ASCE, Reston, VA (USA), 1998, vol. 2, pp. 1542-1553

Campagna, C., F. Quintana, B.J. Le Boeuf, S. Blackwell, and D.E. Crocker. 1998. Diving behaviour and foraging ecology of female southern elephant seals from Patagonia. Aquatic Mammals 24(1): 1 - 11.

Costa, D.P, D.E. Crocker, B. J. Le Boeuf.  1997. The effects of low frequency sounds on pinnipeds. In: Pinniped Populations, Eastern North Pacific: Status, Trends, and Issues. (eds. G. Stone, J. Goebel, S. Webster). New England Aquarium and Monterey Bay Aquarium, pp. 95 - 106.

Crocker, D.E., B.J. Le Boeuf, and D.P. Costa. 1997. Drift diving in female northern elephant seals: implications for food processing. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 75: 27 - 39.

Costa, D.P. and D.E. Crocker.  1996. Marine mammals of the Southern Ocean. In: Foundations for Ecological Research West of the Antarctic Peninsula,Eds.R. Ross, E. Hoffmann, and L. Quentin. Antartic Research Series, Volume 70, American Geophysical Union, pp. 287 - 301.

Le Boeuf, B.J. and D.E. Crocker. 1996. Diving behavior of northern elephant seals: implications for predator avoidance. In: Great White Sharks, The Biology ofCarcharodon carcharias (eds. A. P. Klimley and D.G. Ainley), Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 193 - 206.

Le Boeuf, B.J., P.A. Morris, S.B. Blackwell, D.E. Crocker, and D.P. Costa. 1996. Diving behavior of juvenile northern elephant seals. Canadian Journal Of Zoology.74:1632 - 1644.

Campagna , C., B.J. Le Boeuf, S.B. Blackwell, D.E. Crocker, and F. Quintana. 1995. Diving behavior and foraging location of female southern elephant seals from Patagonia. Journal of Zoology, London. 236: 55 -71.

Crocker, D.E., B.J. Le Boeuf, Y. Naito, T. Asaga, and D.P. Costa.  1994. Swim speed and dive function in a female northern elephant seal. In: Elephant Seals: Population Ecology, Behavior, and Physiology. (eds. B.J. Le Boeuf and R.M. Laws). University of California Press, Los Angeles. pp. 328 - 342.

Deutsch, C.D., D.E. Crocker, D.P. Costa, and B.J. Le Boeuf. 1994. Sex and age related variation in reproductive effort in the northern elephant seal. In: Elephant Seals: Population Ecology, Behavior, and Physiology. (eds. B.J. Le Boeuf and R.M. Laws). University of California Press, Los Angeles. pp. 169 -210.

Le Boeuf, B.J., D.E. Crocker, S.B. Blackwell, P.A. Morris, and P.H. Thorson.  1993. Sex differences in the diving and foraging behavior of northern elephant seals. In: Recent Advances in Marine Mammal Science. Symposium of the zoological Society of London. No.66: 149 - 178.

Le Boeuf, B.J., Y. Naito, T. Asaga, D.E. Crocker, and D.P. Costa.  1992. Swim speed in a female northern elephant seal: metabolic and foraging implications.Canadian Journal of Zoology. 70: 786 - 795.