Lecture: Albert Bandura on Social Learning and Self-Efficacy
LECTURE NOTES: ALBERT BANDURA
Born Dec. 4, 1925 to family of wheaat farmers of Polish heritage. Grew up in small town in Alberta, attended high school with 2 teachers and 20 students. BA from U of BC, MA & Ph.D. from Iowa.
2. MODELING, AND OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
Most human behavior learned through observation, either intentionally or accidentally.
We regulate and guide behavior by observing what others do, and what happens to them. Imitate the behavior they model.
Young children watch others perform task, then do it themselves.
3. VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT
ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES are important. (Insurance, gas station)
Involves ability to anticipate and appreciate consequences observed in others, not experienced oneself.
Actual schedule of reinforcement less important that what the person thinks or perceives it to be.
Vicarious reinforcement represents a kind of self-reinforcement.
In some cases reinforcement is a very inefficient way to change behavior. Time consuming and potentially dangerous. Traffic lights, etc. No place for trial-and-error.
4. BOBO DOLL STUDY
"Clear the way" to adult size plastic doll. Then four novel aggressive responses, each with distinctive comments.
(1) Laid model on side, sat on, punched in nose, & "Pow, right on the nose, boom, boom.
(2) Raised doll & hit on head with mallet "Sockeroo...stay down"
(3) Kicked doll around room "Fly away"
(4) Threw rubber balls at doll, each strike with "Bang"
The sequence done twice.
Control condition: no consequences. Others saw model rewarded (Praise, soda pop & candy) or punished ("Coward, bully,") spanked with rolled-up newspaper and threatened with beating.
Then children left alone to play in room with doll, balls, mallet, pegboard, while adult went presumably to get other toys.
Results as expected.
Phase II. Prizes offered to reproduce model's behavior. These wiped out differences between the groups.
Live and in 5-minute movie. Similar results. Films widely used. Cheaper than real models. Videotaping offers new possibilities.
5. MALE FEMALE STUDY
Boys more aggression than girls after watching amale aggressive model than after female, Girls imitated aggression of female more.
6. AGGRESSION AND TV
In another study, young observers reported disliking a model rewarded for aggression but still imitated him & said they wanted to be like him. TV, where bad guy gets it only at end.
7. FEAR OF DOG STUDIES
A. Subjects are young children afraid of dogs.
Safe distance. Model made progressively bolder moves. First petted dog through bars of a playpen. Finally child model went inside the pen and played openly and cheerfully with dog.
One condition, just one model with cocker spaniel. Second condition, also watched other models of various ages play with variety of dogs. Control condition, movies of Disneyland and Marineland.
Equal initial improvement both groups. 1 month later, slight falloff with single model group, continued improvement with multiple model group.
8. FEAR OF SNAKES
Adult subjects afraid of snakes watched a film in which children, adolescents, and adults displayed progressively closer contact with snake. First models handled plastic snakes, then real ones, then large snake crawled freely over their bodies. If scenes became too threatening, subject could stop film, move it back to less threatening ones.
MORE EFFECTIVE: First watch live model and then actively participate with model. First watched model handle snake on other side of observation window. Then subject entered same room with model and watched. Then with gloves, touched midel while model held tail and head. Then touch without gloves.
Necklaces, real-estate agent rural areas, snake nightmares disappeared.
9. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING.
A. Characteristics of the model
1. Status & prestige (Well vs. shabby dress crossing street)
2. Mastery and coping models.
3. Similarity to subject on other attributes
4. Ability to affect future rewards and punishments to subject.
5. Apparent high competence, alleged experts, celebrities. In general, any qualities that cause model to be perceived as attractive.
B. Attributes of the observers
C. Reward consequences
10. PROCESSES INVOLVED IN OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
A. ATTENTION. Charistics of model and situation important.
B. RETENTION processes.
We encode through words, image formation, or both.
Imaginal and verbal internal representational systems.
C. MOTOR REPRODUCTION PROCESSES. Being able to perform the
behavior correctly. Especially important with highly skilled
acts that include many component behaviors.
D. INCENTIVE AND MOTIVATION
Self-reinforcement gets special attention. Self-admin-
istered reward may be feeling of satisfaction or
Self-administered punishment includes shame, guilt,
depression andout how one behaved.
Bandura believes that most of our behavior is
regulated by a continuing process of self-reinforcemnt.
How well we meet our standards. Refers to a feeling of adequacy and efficiency in dealing with life. Includes our sense of self-esteem. Comes from past successful accomplishments of meeting and maintaining our performance standards.
Important to set appropriate performance standards.
Miniature bowling game. One group watched model reward self only for excellent performances, other watched model reward self for poor performances. Children tended to match the behavior to which they were exposed.
Children trained to a stringent standard by first model who then saw another adult violate that standard were least willing to hold to the standard. Implications for adults who set strict rules but don't follow through.
12. RELATE TO ROTTERS ILC/ELC; SELIGMAN'S LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
13. RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM: Person, behavioral, & environmental
factors all operate as "interlocking determinants" of each other.