Geography 360


FALL 2004


Extra Credit?

Final Exam, Tuesday, December 14, 11 a.m. to 12:50 p.m., Stv 3036

The following topics and terms may be covered on the final exam. Concepts and interrelationships will be emphasized. One half of the exam will be comprehensive, covering the first two thirds of the course, in more general terms than the first two midterms. One half will cover everything from the last third of the class, beginning with Faults and Volcanoes, then Glacial, Coastal, and Eolian processes and landforms, Chapters 10 through 17. This material will be covered in more detail. The test will consist of 20 multiple choice questions, five short answer questions, and two short essay questions. One of the short essay questions will be answered by everyone; the second will be chosen from a list of several possible topics.

Topics and Concepts

Tectonic Landforms

Tectonic (Endogenic) geomorphology -- driving forces

Epeirogenic uplift, depression, mountain building
Isostatic adjustment -- mass balancing
Effect of uplift on geomorphic processes, base level
Gravity as driving force
Differential Erosion
Cliff and bench topography
Strike and dip
Topographic inversions
Anticlines, breached anticlines (valleys), plunging anticlines
Synclines, synclinal ridges, plunging synclines
Antecedent and Superposed streams
Angular unconformity, disconformity, paraconformity, nonconformity


Tectonic Features, continued

Normal, Reverse, Thrust faults
Transform: Strike-slip, right lateral, left lateral
Displacement, rupture associated with quakes
Fault scarps
Fault blocks, e.g. Basin & Range, Horsts & Grabens
Wineglass structure (p. 251, Easterbrook)
Types of eruptions: Hawaiian, Fissure, Vulcanian, Plinian, Pelean
Types of volcanic materials: pyroclastics, tephra, bombs, lava, gas
Controls on types of eruptions, chemistry, temperature, gas content
Flood lavas, mostly basalts, e.g. Deccan Plateau, Columbia Plateau
Shield volcanoes, form, size, type of igneous rock, type of eruption
Composite (stratovolcanoes), form, size, types of eruption, type of rocks

Glacial Processes and Landforms

Climatic conditions that encourage glacial growth
Glacial mass budget, accumulation and ablation
Pressure melting point, melting and regellation (refreezing)
How glaciers flow, move; deformation and sliding
Erosional processes -- abrasion, plucking
Sediment input, entrainment
Warm ice and cold ice glaciers (list contrasts)
Glacial till, lodgement till, ablation till, glaciofluvial deposits, loess

Landforms associated with Alpine glaciers and Continental ice sheets

Cirque, cirque lake (tarn), horn, arête, col, U-shaped glacial trough, finger lakes, paternoster lakes, hanging valley, roche moutonnée
Moraines -- terminal, lateral, medial, recessional, rogen moraine
Kames, kettles, eskers, drumlins
Outwash plain

Coastal Processes and Landforms

Tides -- spring, neap, sun-moon-earth geometry, perigee, apogee
How tides affect coastal landforms, tidal range

Waves -- wave energy, fetch, how generated
Wave height, wave length, wave period
Breaker zone, surf zone, swash zone, swash and backwash
Longshore current, longshore drift
Wave refraction
Storm surges
Sea level change

Eustatic, (world-wide sea level change) climate change, tectonic change in ocean basins
Isostatic, (change in balance of crust over mantle) glacial forebulge, tectonic adjustment

Beach processes

Seasonal changes, wave energy
Summer beach -- steeper beach face, net deposition
Winter beach -- flatter, offshore bar, rockier, net erosion
Sediment size, sediment source (where sed comes from)

Rocky beaches versus sandy, or mud beaches

Coastal landforms


Spit, baymouth bar, lagoon, cuspate spit, pocket beach, bay and headland coast, tombolo


Sea cliffs, wave cut notch, wave-cut platform or planation platform, sea arch, sea stack


Emergent, prograding, regressing:
due to tectonic uplift, lowering sea level, sediment deposition, cliffs, marine terraces

Submergent, recession, transgression:
due to subsidence, sea level rise, erosion, tend to be irregular, estuaries, bay and headland, barrier islands

Eolian (Wind) Processes and Landforms

Controls on distribution, atmospheric circulation, continentality, coastal
Hjulstrom curve for air vs. water, variations in air density
Entrainment velocity vs. transport velocity
Effect of impacting sand grains
Transport (incl. general particle sizes associated with different processes)
Suspension, saltation, creep

Erosional Eolian processes and landforms

Ventifacts, yardangs

Desert pavement, deflation hollows (also playas)

Depositional Eolian landforms

Controls on form, size
Wind direction, uniformity, turbulence (eddies, etc.)
Sand supply, particle size
Backslope, slipface
Transverse dunes, Barchans, Longitudinal dunes, Parabolic dunes, Ergs
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