Chapter 4: Reading- Phonological Awareness, Alphabetic Principle and Word Recognition

Study Guide Contents

Notes and Concepts



Chapter 4 considers the the use of explicit instruction to teach early reading skills. It synthesizes current research offering practical ideas to help students who have specific learning and reading difficulties.

Some Informal Assessment Ideas Suggested in This Chapter:

phonological skills


word identification

structural analysis

syntax and context

high frequency words

scope and sequence for teaching phonics



Look for the following key concepts/ideas as you read:

  • components of reading instruction
  • phonological awareness
  • word identification, decoding and word study
  • instructional strategies for phonological awareness, alphabetic principle, and word recognition


Go to Part 2- Summary of Ideas

Go to Study Guide Contents



Part 2: Study Questions

Students with learning and behavior disabilities have reading targeted as an area of need more than any other academic area.



Read Chapter 4. Use the following questions to guide your reading and find meaning in this chapter:

  • Explain the interrelationships among oral language, reading, and writing and the need to integrate activities across oral language and literacy.

  • Describe reading as a skilled and strategic process in which learning to decode and read words accurately and rapidly is essential.

  • Describe reading as understanding the text and dependent upon active engagement and interpretation by the reader.

  • Summarize reading instruction being composed of phonological awareness, letter-sound correspondences, the alphabetic principle, word recognition and word study, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension

  • Describe reading as including the effortlessly decoding of words and reading fluently so that attention can focus on meaning and comprehension.

  • Explain how readers use a variety of strategies for decoding words, including phonic analysis, onset-rime, structural analysis, syllabication, automatic word recognition, and syntax and semantics.

  • Summarize the difficulties students with learning/reading disabilities
    oftentimes have with phonological awareness, the alphabetic principle, and learning to effectively use phonic and structural analysis and syllabication.

  • Discuss why students with learning/reading disabilities need direct, explicit instruction in phonological awareness, letter-sound correspondence, and the alphabetic principle.

  • Explain the differences between explicit code instruction and implicit code instruction for word recognition and word study.

  • Identify techniques for building sight words to promote fluency.


When you finish studying this chapter, please go to the class interactive pages and take the self test for Chapter 4.


Go to Part 3- World Wide Web Resources

Go to Study Guide Contents



World Wide Web Resources



Examine the following World Wide Web links and consider their perspectives based on information from Chapter 4.

Read by Grade Three
The goal of this site is to have 98% of students reading on grade level by the end of second grade. The purpose of this Website is to educate teachers on how to implement phonemic awareness and decoding skills in their classrooms. A general overview of reading research is provided along with a section on assistance for teachers and administrators. Suggested readings are provided followed by information on organizations

The National Reading Panel
The National Reading Panel assesses the status of research-based knowledge (of reading development and disability), including the effectiveness of various approaches to teaching children to read.

International Dyslexia Society
The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) is an international, non-profit, scientific and educational organization dedicated to the study and treatment of dyslexia.

National Center for Learning Disabilities
This Website provides resources related to reading and other learning disabilities.

International Reading Association
This Website provides resources and information for teaching reading.

Go to Study Guide Contents


    | General Info | Online Study Guides | Interactive Pages |