Chapter 13: Literacy

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Upon completion of this section the learner will:

  • Understand considerations and adaptive approaches to basal textbooks, whole language, reading recovery, direct instruction, and code emphasis approaches.
  • Describe adaptations for promoting word identification, including phonemic awareness, phonics, structural analysis, and basic sight words.
  • Understand adaptations and technological advances to promote reading fluency, including repeated readings, curriculum-based measurement, and various computer programs.
  • Design and implement strategies for teaching reading comprehension in inclusive settings.
  • Describe and implement instructional and technological adaptations for written expression.
  • Implement instructional strategies to enhance and improve spelling for students in inclusive settings.
  • Describe and implement effective composition strategies, such as self-regulation and self-instruction.


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Part 2: Summary of Ideas

...reading comprehension strategies can be employed before, during, or after reading.



A variety of approaches exist for teaching students to read. Many students with reading disabilities lack phonemic awareness or phonics skills and overuse context cues when trying to read. Teachers should select reading programs that consider these need areas.

Phonemic awareness is the understanding that words are composed of smaller speech sounds (phonemes). Systematic instruction in phonemic awareness can be beneficial for students who lack this understanding.

Sequenced phonics instruction is also usually helpful for students with reading problems. Phonics instruction is most helpful when it is used in conjunction with other reading and language arts activities, focuses on reading words rather than learning rules, and includes learning onsets and rimes.

Reading comprehension strategies can be employed before, during, or after reading. These strategies include basic skills instruction and text enhancements. Self-monitoring and self-questioning strategies are among the most effective reading comprehension strategies.

Handwriting problems can be addressed by providing models, providing sufficient practice, using behavioral techniques, and teaching self-regulation and self-instruction strategies.

A variety of strategies have been described for improving difficulties in spelling. These include using the appropriate difficulty level, providing additional practice, providing mnemonic strategies, and providing self-instructional and self-monitoring strategies.

Written communication difficulties can be addressed by using collaborative peer groups, teaching self-regulation and self-instruction strategies, using story grammar, and teaching effective specific composition strategies. Adapting instruction for students' special needs can promote more inclusive classroom environments.


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Chapter Activities

Most students with reading difficulties require additional practice activities designed to help them read more fluently.




Read Chapter 13 in the text. Use the Chapter 13 Graphic Organizer to "see" the big ideas in the chapter. Fill in blank sections of the graphic organizer.


Examine the following World Wide Web links and consider their perspectives based on information from Chapter 13. Print out useful information and add it to your class notebook.


Schools of California Online Resources in Education: Language Arts


Balanced Reading Instruction


Bilingual Reading Instruction



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