Chapter 6: Effective Instruction for All Students

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Upon completion of this section the learner will:

  • Describe the effective teaching variables, including planning for content coverage and delivering instruction.
  • Identify the various types and levels of learning occurring across content areas.
  • Identify strategies for maximizing academic engagement (time-on-task).
  • Describe the teacher presentation (SCREAM) variables.
  • Compare and contrast higher-level and lower-level questioning.
  • Describe the use of practice activities to reinforce recall and comprehension.
  • Describe the uses of formative evaluation and contrast with summative evaluation.

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Part 2: Summary of Ideas

When planning for student learning, consider specifically what will be taught, and to what level of proficiency.



Effective instruction variables are those variables that have been shown to exert a positive effect on student achievement. These variables include planning for content coverage and using effective teaching strategies. Effective instruction variables have been demonstrated to be positively associated with achievement of all students in inclusive settings.

Planning for content coverage is a critical component of teacher effectiveness. Teachers must consider carefully the role of objectives, scope and sequence, curriculum, pacing, and types and levels of learning when planning instruction.

Types of learning include discrimination, factual, procedural, rule, conceptual, and problem solving/critical thinking. Levels of learning include acquisition, fluency, application, and generalization. Students can provide either identification or production responses. Consideration of types and levels of learning can be beneficial when planning instructional strategies.

Effective teaching strategies include maximizing academic time-on-task, making effective teacher presentations, monitoring practice activities, review, and formative evaluation. All are critical components of effective teaching for all students.

Effective teacher presentations use the SCREAM variables including structure, clarity, redundancy, enthusiasm, appropriate rate, and maximized engagement. Additionally, effectively used questioning, feedback, and praise are important contributors to student learning.

Practice activities provide opportunities for students to solidify and apply their learning. Practice activities can include guided practice, in which teachers closely monitor student responding, and independent practice, in which students work more independently. Frequent review allows for long-term learning.

Formative evaluation refers to collecting student performance data throughout the course of instructional units, so that instructional decisions&emdash;such as increasing academic engaged time&emdash;can be made while instruction is still ongoing.

A sample model of a lesson based on teacher effectiveness variables includes daily review, statement of objective, presentation of information, guided practice, independent practice, and formative evaluation. Model lessons are based on careful consideration of objectives, scope and sequence of instruction, pacing, curriculum materials, and types/levels of learning expected for successful achievement of all students.


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Chapter Activities

More time effectively engaged in learning leads to more (and better) learning outcomes.




Read Chapter 6 in the text. Use the Chapter 6 Graphic Organizer to "see" the big ideas in the chapter. Fill in blank sections of the graphic organizer. Add the graphic organizer to your class notebook.


Examine the following World Wide Web links and consider their perspectives based on information from Chapter 6. Print out useful information and add it to your class notebook.

Ed's Oasis: Teacher Resources and Opportunities
Catalog of School Reform Models
Blue Webn' Learning Sites
Instructional Design Resources



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