Nathan Rank

Sonoma State University

Evolution of host plant preference
Species and genes used for phylogeny (Page 2 of 3)


Species & Genes Used

Results & Conclusions

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  • We collected eight species of Phratora and three outgroup taxa in Europe and North America.
  • A literature search and our own observations established the host plant use of all species sampled.
  • We obtained complete DNA sequences at the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene for the taxa that we had collected.

Species collected

  • Ten of eleven species we studied occur in Europe.
  • The host use of the Phratora species we collected spans the host use of the entire genus.
  • One outgroup species, C. vigintipunctata, uses salicylates from the host plant for its secretion, and the other two produce the same kind of secretion as most Phratora species.


Phratora species

Outgroup species

Phratora aklaviki

Chrysomela vigintipunctata

P. atrovirens

Gastrophysa viridula

P. laticollis

Linaeidea aenea

P. polaris [on birch]

P. polaris [on willow]

P. tibialis

P. vitellinae

P. vulgatissima

Species sampled in our study. Click here to see localities and host plants.

Host use determination.

  • We determined host use based on our observations and on published data.
  • We only included references that mentioned that eggs or larvae were observed on the host plant.
  • For details abouit host plant use and host plant chemistry, click here.

Amplification and sequencing strategy.

  • We used seven primers to amplify and sequence the entire mitochondrial COI gene for all species sampled.
  • After DNA sequence anlignment, we obtained amino acid sequence for all taxa.
  • We used the nucleotide sequence and the amino acid sequence in our phylogenetic reconstruction.

Sequenced region of the COI gene with approximate locations of the primers indicated. Click here for primer sequences.

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Research Home|Nathan Rank's Homepage |Department of Biology | Sonoma State University

January 23, 1999 NER