Proper referencing


A Note about Proper Acknowledging Sources and Cheating

If you quote or paraphrase a source in your paper you have to put that source in parentheses just after the quote or paraphrase: e.g., (Angus and Langsdorf, 1993, page xx), or (Journalist, 1997, page xx). "Borrowing" text from a source, either literally or in paraphrase, without proper acknowledgment is called plagiarism and is fraudulent and unethical, and could lead to a failing grade! It is easy to find out whether you have done this by using various search engines, like Google or CompletePlanet. Copying too large chucks of a text may be a copyright infringement. See

Plagiarism will lead to failure in the course. See this link from Georgetown University on what is plagiarism.

Wikipedia or other encyclopedias cannot be used as a reference

If in doubt ask the instructor!


When you are asked to provide a Bibliography here is the format you should follow for your bibliography:


An Edited Volume

Angus, Ian, and Lenore Langsdorf (eds.). 1993. The Critical Turn : Rhetoric and philosophy in postmodern discourse. Carbondale : Southern Illinois University Press.


A Book

Nisbett, Richard, and Lee Ross. 1980. Human Inference : Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall.


A Video

Goleman, Daniel, et al. 1996. Emotional intelligence: a new vision for educators. Videorecording. Port Chester, N.Y. : National Professional Resources.


An Article in a Journal

Alefeld, Götz, Misha Koshelev, and Günther Mayer. 1997. "Why it is computationally harder to reconstruct the past than to predict the future." International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 36(8), 1683-1689.


An Article in an Edited Book

Fong, G. T., et al. 1993. The effects of statistical training on thinking about everyday problems. In Richard E. Nisbett (ed.). Rules for Reasoning. Hillsdale, N.J. : L. Erlbaum Associates, 91-125.


An Article in a Magazine

Karp, Walter. 1989 "All the Congressmen's Men. How Capitol Hill controls the press." Harper's Magazine, July, pp. 55-63.

An Article in a Newspaper

Journalist, Jane. 1997. Big Upsurge of Critical Thinking in Sonoma County. Experts Baffled. New York Times, November 13, p. A1.

or, if you found the newspaper article online:

Malkin, Elisabeth. 2005. Science vs. Culture in Mexico's Corn Staple. New York Times, March 27,


A Website

Name of the Person or Organization whose website it is. Title of the home page (in italics) [Title is shown in the bar at the top of the window, sometimes the title is empty, missing!]. URL. When last seen.


Columbia Free-Net. The Columbia Free-Net. Viewed on November 14, 2001.

Zeno G. Swijtink. Homepage Zeno Swijtink. Viewed on January 1, 2002.


A Source from the WWW

Horwitz, Steven. 1997. From the sensory order to the liberal order: Hayek's non-rationalist liberalism. Viewed on September 12, 1997.


An interview

Pope Leo XII. Personal interview, January 12, 1825.


A letter

Quetelet, Adolphe. Letter to Jacob de Gelder, Utrecht, May 16, 1823. SSU Archives, Box 2184b.