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Study Guide I: "Parts is parts"

Material covered will be through 9/30.

Steps to success:

  1. Begin using this study guide now, not the weekend before the exam!
  2. Review Vocabulary List 1 and List 2.
  3. READ
  4. For sample exam questions, see case outside D234.
  5. Review self-quizzes 1-4.
  6. READ again.


Study exercises and questions:

1. Build a chart or map of the whole immune system. Try making it BIG. You can add to it during the semester. Butcher paper, poster board, and recycled computer paper tiled together are all possibilities. For starters, compare innate vs. adaptive. Include cells and chemicals. [See Concept Mapping.]

  • Which ones appear under only one heading? What is their primary function?
  • Which ones appear under both headings? Do their roles change?
  • Which ones serve as a bridge between innate and adaptive?

  • If you were to look for the location of the innate system, where would you find it?
  • Where is the adaptive system located? [You will be able to answer this better as you get to the lymphoid organs.]

2. Focus on cells and add to your map or chart.

  • What types are there? What are the major groups and subtypes?
  • Where are they found? How do they move through the system?
  • What do they look like? What are their key functions?

3. Focus next on the lymphoid organs.

  • What are they? What are their structures?
  • How are they linked together?
  • Which ones are primary lymphoid organs? Which ones are secondary? [What is the meaning of "primary" vs. "secondary" in this case?]

4. What are antigens?

  • What key characteristics do molecules which are "antigenic" have?
  • Where are antigens found?
  • Can antigens be changed? If so, how? [Trick question- this can be answered from more than one viewpoint.]

5. Make a diagram and map of the different types of antigen receptors- both immunoglobulins and T cell receptors.

  • How are they grouped? Note similarities and differences in structure and function.
  • How are these molecules expressed on the cells?
  • Which ones are soluble? Where are they found?
  • Which ones are cell-bound? Where are they found?
  • Are there any other antigen receptors? If so, what are they?

6. Diagram or illustrate the following Ag-Ab interactions:

  • soluble antibody and soluble antigen
  • soluble antibody and cell-bound antigen
  • cell-bound antibody and soluble antigen
  • cell-bound antibody and cell-bound antigen

7. Give an example of a laboratory application for each of the combinations listed in '6' above.

8. What is the key difference between Ab-Ag interactions and TCR-Ag interactions?

9. What is affinity? What is avidity? Make an illustration to show the difference.

10. Draw a heavy chain gene for an immunoglobulin. Draw a light chain gene.

  • Note the similarities and differences.
  • Diagram the process of gene rearrangement. Note at what point in cell development that this rearrangement takes place.
  • How does class switching take place?

11. Draw the two genes for TCR [a and b] or [g and d].

  • Compare these to your Ig genes. Note the similarities and differences.
  • Which regions are primarily associated with Ag-binding?
  • Which regions are primarily associated with MHC-binding?

12. What other genes are part of the Ig supergene family? Where are their protein products found?

13. Diagram the production of an immunoglobulin from gene to protein.

  • How is diversity of antigen-specificity generated?
  • Can Ig's change after initial rearrangement? If so, how and when?

14. Make a chart or map of MHC. Define MHC.

  • Illustrate their structures. What functions do they serve?
  • What other molecule families are related? Note similarities and differences.
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