Psychology 306

Fall 2000
Art Warmoth



Final exam questions will be chosen from among the following items, unless adddtional possible questions are distributed in class.

Part I. MATCHING CONCEPTS TO AUTHORS (There may be more than one correct match, and one author may match more than one concept.)

Column A. Concepts

Emitted Response_____

Type R Conditioning_____

Inferiority Complex_____

Knowledge Community_____

Cognitive Maps_____

Symbolic Constructs_____



Negative Reinforcement_____


Fixed Interval Reinforcement_____

Interpersonal Theory_____

Type S Conditioning_____

Collective Unconscious_____


"Biophilous" Character Type_____

Foundational Knowledge_____

Non-Foundational Knowledge_____

The Ten Neurotic Needs_____

Character Armor_____


Social Interest_____




Systems Thinking_____

Column B. Authors

A. Kenneth Bruffee

B. Fritjof Capra ("Mindwalk")

C. Sigmund Freud

D. Carl Gustav Jung

E. Alfred Adler

F. Wilhelm Reich

G. Erich Fromm

H. Karen Horney

I. Harry Stack Sullivan

J. Ivan Pavlov

K. John B. Watson

L. Edward C. Tolman

M. Clark L. Hull

N. B. F. Skinner

O. Max Wertheimer

P. Wolfgang Köhler

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(Match the correct definition to the key terms)

Part A. Key Terms




Knowledge Community____

Systems Thinking____



Social Interest____


Socratic Method____

Operant Conditioning____


Cognitive Maps____


Positive Reinforcement____

Symbolic Constructs____


Negative Reinforcement____


Latency Period____

Behavior Modification____



Defense Mechanism____

Interval Reinforcement____

Ratio Reinforcement____

Type S Conditioning____

Type R Conditioning____


Emitted Response____

Artificial Intelligence____


Foundational Knowledge____

Field Theory____


Part B. Definitions

1. An academic discipline, profession, or other cultural group that is responsible for the practice of knowledge.

2. The images that live in the collective unconscious.

3. Anima + Animus.

4. According to Jung, generalized psychic energy.

5. Unconscious mental mechanisms which prevent the individual from experiencing anxiety.

6. The archetype that incorporates and expresses the negative aspects of the personality.

7. A defense mechanism that involves taking on the personality characteristics of another person, usually someone who is admired.

8. The tendency to project parental characteristics and issues on to the psychoanalyst.

9. The theory of knowledge; the philosophical study of the origins, presuppositions, nature, extent, and veracity of knowledge.

10. Experienced order in space is always structurally identical with a functional order in the distribution of the underlying brain processes.

11. Socially justified beliefs that all of us agree on.

12. The technical psychological term for "knowing" or "knowledge."

13. Human beings naturally belong to groups and strive to contribute to society.

14. A defense mechanism characterized by attributing undesirable characteristics of the self to another person.

15. Achieving knowledge, especially self-knowledge, by asking questions and pursuing the answers to their logical conclusions.

16. The holistic personality theory of Kurt Lewin

17. A pleasant or rewarding stimulus.

18. Removal of an irritant or uncomfortable stimulus.

19. The disciplined descriptive study of experience itself; a major historical antecedent of Gestalt, existential, and humanistic psychologies.

20. Abbreviated theoretical representation of intervening variables tied to operational definitions

21. Gestalt psychology's term for the perceptual tendency to complete an incomplete figure.

22. Shaping behavior through the use of reward or reinforcement.

23. Representation of the environment in the nervous system that are acquired through learning.

24. The psychosexual stage preceding adolescence

25. J. C. Smuts term for the importance of studying organized wholes; an important influence on both Gestalt psychology and humanistic psychology, as well as on Adler.

26. A spontaneous behavior that can be shaped by reward or reinforcement.

27. The practical application of Skinner's principles of operant conditioning, especially in therapy and institutional settings

28. A reinforcement schedule based on time.

29. A reinforcement schedule based on frequency of response.

30. The computer simulation or replication of complex human cognitive processes.

31. The general application of holistic or gestalt principles in the physical, biological, and social sciences.

32. A type of explanation that can be traced from the pre-Socratics to the behaviorists.

33. Skinner's term for "classical conditioning."

34. Skinner's term for "operant conditioning."

35. A symmetrical design symbolizing archetypal wholeness.

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Arrange each of the following groups in chronological order.

1 = earliest; 3 = most recent


2 Max Wertheimer

1 Stoicism

3 Information Theory


_____Little Albert

_____Ivan Pavlov

_____Edward Chace Tolman


_____The Unconscious

_____Systems Thinking

_____Operant Conditioning



_____Gestalt Psychology

_____Cogntive Science


_____Cognitive Psychology

_____B. F. Skinner

_____Wilhelm Wundt


_____Sigmund Freud


_____Alfred Adler



_____Kenneth Bruffee

_____William James

_____Karen Horney


_____Kurt Lewin

_____Wolfgang Kohler

_____Edmund Husserl



_____Ivan Pavlov

_____Clark L. Hull


_____Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysis

_____Information Theory




_____Artificial Intelligence


_____Style of life

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1. What is a principal difference between Plato's and Jung's theory of "archetypes."

a. Jung sees archetypes as evolving, while Plato does not.

b. Plato's concept is a more complete "systems theory."

c. Plato's theory incorporates Heraclitus' concept of "being as flux," while Jung embodies Parmenides concept of "being as unchangeable."

2. Which theorist has the most optimistic view of the content and dynamics of the unconscious?

a. Freud

b. Jung

c. Harry Stack Sullivan

3. "Individuation" is

a. The process of identity formation during the adolescent identity crisis.

b. The process of self- growth by which the individual seeks to unify the various aspects of his personality into a spiritually whole self.

c. The process of overcoming the "inferiority complex."

4. What do the major neo-Freudians have in common?

a. The all accept Freud's basic theory of the id, ego, and super-ego.

b. They are all concerned with how social influences shape individual lives, particularly in the form of relationships or interactions with other people.

c. They see mental illness as a form of maladaptive behavior, which does not work to serve the patient's welfare.

5. The disease in which a patient loses a normal physical ability for psychological reasons is called:

a. dysfunction

b. anal retentive

c. hysteria

6. Which of the following was NOT concerned with social philosophy and criticism?

a. Erich Fromm

b. Sigmund Freud

c. Ivan Pavlov

7. Who was the founder of the interpersonal school of psychology?

a. Wilhelm Reich

b. Karen Horney

c. Harry Stack Sullivan

8. Which of the following is NOT one of Freud's five stages of psychosexual development.

a. Basic trust

b. Latency

c. Anal

9. Which of these psycho analysts did not see the future as an important determinant of behavior?

a. Freud

b. Adler

c. Jung

10. Which of the following was NOT one of Freud's major contributions?

a. His theory of the unconscious.

b. His theory of the role of culture in the development of character types.

c. His understanding of the importance of childhood experiences in adult behavior.

Additional Multiple Choice Questions for Psych 306 Final

1. Pavlov found that placing food powder in the dog's mouth increased the saliva flow. In this situation, the increased saliva flow was a(n)

a. unconditioned stimulus (US)

b. unconditioned response (UR)

c. conditioned stimulus (CS)

d conditioned response (CR)

2. For Watson, the goal of psychology was to:

a. solve the mind-body problem

b. predict and control behavior

c. discover the elements of thought

d. show that humans & nonhuman animals are essentially the same.

3. In their research on Albert, Watson and Raynor found that in addition to becoming fearful of the rat, Albert became fearful of other furry objects. Albert's fear of objects other than thee rat demonstrated:

a. discrimination

b. disinhibition

c. generalization

d. spontaneous recovery

4. With their research on the infant named Albert, Watson and Raynor demonstrated that:

a. emotions could be displaced to a stimulus other than the one that had originally elicited the emotions

b. bodily structure interacts with experience to produce personality

c. there are important individual differences among people

d. intelligence is only partially genetically determined.

5. The neobehaviorists believe all of the following except:

a. research on nonhumans could provide useful information about humans

b. all theoretical terms had to be defined operationally

c. the learning process was of prime importance and therefore should be studied intensely

d. to employ theoretical terms was to bring metaphysical speculation back into psychology

6. Tolman believed that:

a. learning occurred independently of reinforcement

b. if no reinforcement occurred, no learning occurred

c. reinforcement governed classical conditioning but not instrumental conditioning

d. reinforcement governed instrumental conditioning but not classical conditioning

7. According to Hull, for learning to take place, a response must be followed by:

a. confirmation

b. a satisfying state of affairs

c. drive-reduction

d. a wave of electrical activity through the frontal lobe of the cortex

8. According to Skinner, the most important aspect of operant behavior was that it:

a. was elicited by a known stimulus

b. could be explained by Pavlovian principles

c. was controlled by its consequences

d. produced a satisfying state of affairs.

9. For Skinner, the environment was important because it:

a. elicited behavior

b. selected behavior

c. provided the organism with the opportunity to test its expectancies

d. allowed the organism to develop a cognitive map

10. According to Skinner, punishment is widely used in efforts to modify behavior because it:

a. is the most effective method available

b. is reinforcing to the punisher

c. weakens undesirable behavior just as reinforcement strengthens desirable behavior

d. has the advantage of increasing stress tolerance in those who are punished

11. For Gestaltists, the proper subject matter for psychology was:

a. operant behavior

b. S-R associations

c. mental elements

d. phenomenological experience

12. Which of the following observations launched the school of Gestalt psychology:

a. our perceptions are more than, or different from, the sensations that make them up

b. humans are only quantitatively different from other animals

c. objective reality and subjective reality are really the same thing

d. introspection can be used to study the contents of the human mind

13. The ______________ asserts that all cognitive experiences will tend to be as organized, symmetrical, simple, and regular as they can be, given the pattern of brain activity at any given moment:

a. principle of inclusiveness

b. law of Prägnanz

c. constancy hypothesis

d. principle of continuity

14. _______________ refers to the fact that often during psychoanalysis the therapist develops strong emotional feelings toward the patient:

a. Resistance

b. Transference

c. Countertransference

d. Anticathexis

15. _______________ refers to the fact that often during psychoanalysis a patient develops strong emotional feelings toward the therapist:

a. Resistance

b. Transference

c. Countertransference

d. Anticathexis

16. According to Freud, at any given stage of development, the areas of the body on which sexual pleasure was concentrated was called the:

a. G spot

b. erogenous zone

c. naughty part

d. thanatos

17. According to Freud, the ego is governed by the ______________ principle:

a. pleasure

b. reality

c. primary

d. Oedipal

18. According to Freud, the id is governed by the ______________ principle:

a. pleasure

b. reality

c. primary

d. Oedipal

19. In Jung's theory, which of the following means about the same thing as "meaningful coincidence":

a. individuation

b. teleology

c. synchronicity

d. self-actualization

20. According to Jung, ______________ is the process by which the various components of the personality are recognized and given expression within the context of a person's life:

a. teleology

b. displacement

c. individuation

d. thanatos

21. Jung's theory was criticized for being all of the following except:

a. mystical

b. unscientific

c. incomprehensible

d. over-emphasizing sex

22. Adler believed that all humans started life with

a. feelings of inferiority

b. weak organs

c. a collective unconscious

d. primordial guilt

23. According to Horney, the difference between neurotic and normal people regarding the use of major adjustment patterns was that:

a. only neurotics use them

b. only normal people use them

c. normal people use all of them as they are required by varying circumstances whereas neurotics attempt to deal with all of life's circumstances using only one of them

d. neurotics use all of them as they are required by varying circumstances whereas normal people attempt to deal with all of life's circumstances using only one of them

24. Horney believed that women often feel inferior to men because:

a. women are physically inferior to men

b. of penis envy

c. women are culturally inferior to men

d. anatomy is destiny

25. Who claimed that anatomy is destiny:

a. Freud

b. Adler

c. Jung

d. Horney


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