PAVLOV AND CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Behavior that is climaxed by its own ends, such as eating, drinking, or sex, is called ____________ behavior.
For classical conditioning to take place, in what order must the different kinds of stimuli occur? The ___________ stimulus must occur prior to the _____________ stimulus.
What is the term now most commonly used for the phenomenon Pavlov called the "investigatory reflex?" The o__________ r__________.
"Conditioned inhibition" occurs when the occurrance of an "inhibitory" conditioned stimulus reliably predicts ____________________________.
The conditions required for "extinction" of a conditioned response to occur are that the response must occur under circumstances where no r __________ s_________ is (or are) present.
When a conditioned response has been weakened through extinction, after time has passed it may recover some of its strength. This "popping up again" of a behavior after extinction is called
Even if there are no new emotionally aroousing events to set off a conditioned response, extinction of a conditioned emotional response is unlikely to occur if
When a well-learned conditioned stimulus serves as the unconditioned stimulus as a new response is learned, the process is called:
___________ ___________ ___________ .
After learning to respond in a given way to a certain cue, we may learn to respond that way to other cues as well. Technically, this is called ____________ ____________ . (1-word or 2-word answer is OK)
The process by which we learn to tell the difference between different stimuli, and respond differently to them, is called _________________ (one or two word answer is OK.)
A graph which shows the probability of response to stimuli which resemble to a greater or lesser degree than the one we initially learned to respond to is called a g_____________ g______________.
A reinforcer that is established by pairing with a primary reinforcer by means of some kind of classical conditioning process is called a s_______________ r_______________.
18. When a well-learned conditioned stimulus serves as the unconditioned stimulus as a new response is learned, the process is called:
h___________ o___________ ___________
Out of all the stimuli which are present at a given moment in a given situation, those that affects which response(s) a person chooses are said to have s____________ c___________ over the responses.
Experimental neurosis" occurs when ____________________________
What class of responses is conditioned in "interoceptive conditioning?" _____________ ____________. Give examples.
Pavlov used the term "_____________ _____________" for the establishment of conditioned responses to given words or numbers and the subsequent generalization of the response to other similar words or numbers.
|ITEMS OF HISTORICAL INTEREST|
True of False? John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner were the first to demonstrate the establishment of conditioned emotional responses in infants and children, as in the celebrated "Little Albert" experiment.
What was Watson's student Mary Cover Jones the first to do?
What was the aspect of behavior that Watson was adamently opposed to including in his psychology? (Hint: For such diverse figures as Titchener and William James, it was the main subject of psychology.) ________________
Who was the psychologist who formulated the "Law of Effect" emphasizing the effect of reward and punishment, in the procedure that Skinner later labeled "operant conditioning?" Hint: His subjects were primarily cats.__________________.
Tolman named his approach _______________ _______________. His best known experiment, which provided the title for the book of his collected papers, was titled, "__________ _____ __ ____ ____ ____."
Tolman believed that rats and people form C____________ M_____ of their environment, and that our behavior is guided by our i_______________.
Tolman's celebrated "latent learning" experiments demonstrated that ____________ and _____________ of a behavior are not identical, and that in many cases _________________ is not necessary for learning.
Clark Hull's intervening variable called "habit strength" depends, in his view, on four different kinds of intervening variables. These are:
Hull pointed out that the frequency and ________________ of a response are not necessarily correlate
|OBSERVING AND RECORDING BEHAVIOR|
An "operational definition" describes behavior in terms of _________________________________________________.
Are behavioral descriptions are more or less useful than "trait" labels? Why?
"Overt" behaviors are those which we _______ _______. "Covert" behaviors are those which we __________ __________.
The terms ABC refer to the words ___________ __________ ___________ .
Out of all the stimuli that are present at a given moment in a given situation, those that affects which response(s) a person chooses are said to have "___________ over the responses.
The ghost of Tolman is with us. E____________ about the probable consequences of what we might do have a big effect on whether we do it.
DRH and DRL reinforcement schedules are shorthand for:
When trying to get rid of an undesirable behavior, whenever possible it is important to at the same time __________________________________ .
When recording behavior, dimensions that you may wish to record are its ___________________ and ______________.
What is the best time to record your behavior? ___________________ __________________________________.
What is a "reversal phase" in a behavior change study with a single-subject design? ___________________________________________________.
What alternative terms to S&G use for "independent variables" and "dependent variables?" _________________________________________.
"Clinical significance" refers to a change that is ____________________.
In "multimodal" behavioral assessment, measurement are made of ______________________________________.
In behavioral observation, a time when observations are made but the data are not yet used is called a B_____________.
When observation of one's own behavior leads to change without any other change in stimulus or reinforcement contingencies, it is called the S____ __________ effect.
The term "P_____________ fears," first used by Seligman, refers to a biologically rooted tendency to develop certain kinds of responses.
The technique of deliberately practicing a problem behavior while consciously attending to it is called N__________ P___________.
One thing that stops people from mastering their behaviors is that they are often in conflict between their ___________ goals and their ___________ goals.