THURSDAY December 19

5:00- - 7:00



This portion of the test will work just like the Midterm Exam. There will be 12 listening examples. You will have listed on the exam the following specific categories of music we have discussed during the semester.

Anglo-American folk

Afro-American folk

Native American music

Latin American music

old timey country music

country music after 1945

rural blues

classic blues

soul music

50's rock'n'roll

60's rock

rock after 1970

shaped note singing

19th c. urban revival hymn

Afro-American gospel

parlor song

19th c. popular song

20th c. popular song

musical theater before 1925

musical theater after 1925


early jazz

big band jazz


jazz after bebop

classical music before 1925

classical music after 1925


NOTE: Unlike the Midterm Exam, none of the listening examples will be taken from the class CD's. For each example, you will need to answer the following questions.

1. Select the category from the list above that best describes the music.

2. List two characteristics of the music the led you to select that category.


SHORT ANSWERS All questions on the exam will be taken from questions on this sheet. Format of the questions on the exam may be multiple choice, matching, true-false, or short answer.

Chapter 9: Religious Music During and After the Time of Expansion (after 1830)

1. What happened to sacred music between the American Revolution and the Civil War in the urban centers of the east coast? What was the model for this church music?

2. Who was Lowell Mason? Compare Mason's musical values with those of William Billings? How did Mason influence the development of religious music in America? Was his influence a positive one?

3. What happened to sacred music between the American Revolution and the Civil War in the rural areas of the South?

4. What is shaped note singing? Who sang shaped note hymns--choirs or congregations?

5. Compare the subject matter and style of early nineteenth century rural white gospel hymns and the urban gospel movement that arose in the late nineteenth century (Moody-Sankey).

6. Did white gospel music after 1900 flourish primarily in the cities or in rural areas? What about Afro-American gospel music?

7. Why was the preacher so important in the development of Afro-American gospel music?

8. Who was Thomas A. Dorsey? Was he originally a church musician? How did he contribute to the development of Afro-American gospel music?

9. Compare the behavior of the congregation in a pentecostal church and a mainline urban white church.

10. How distinct is the style of contemporary gospel from secular musics being created today?

Chapter 10 Popular Secular Music Before 1830

1. Why is it not appropriate to separate "classical" and "popular" music at this time?

2.What was a "gentleman" performer? How important were such performers to early urban music events?

3. When did native composers of popular music begin to appear in America?

4. Compare the variety of music (and other activities) common at concerts before 1800 with the present day classical concert. With a rock concert today.

5. Compare the audience attending a concert in 1750 with a classical audience today. With a rock audience today.

6. What role did military bands play in early urban music? Why were they more common than orchestras?

7. How significant was the American-born composer to musical theater before 1830?

8. How did the behavior or audiences at musical theater performances compare with audiences at concerts?

9. How did popular song as a genre begin in America?

10. How diverse was the subject matter and style of early popular song? Was there a clear dividing line between the sacred and the secular?

Chapter 11 Musical Theater 1830-present

1.Why was The Black Crook an important milestone in the development of American musical theater?

2. How was vaudeville different from the minstrel show? Why was vaudeville an even more appropriate medium for promoting popular songs?

3. List three European cities whose popular musical theater influenced the development of American musical theater in the late 19th century. Name one important composer from each.

4. What was the single most important contribution of Gilbert and Sullivan to the development of American musical theater?

5. Why is George M. Cohan a crucial figure in the evolution of the American musical?

6. Explain the significance of Chlorindy, the Origin of the Cakewalk (1900) and Shuffle Along (1921) to the growth of American musical theater.

7. List three composers of American operettas. When were operettas popular on the American stage? What set operettas apart from other American musicals during this period?

8. From Show Boat (1927) to West Side Story (1957) has often been called the golden age of the American musical. Who are the five most important composers of musicals during this period?

9. List four areas of development one can see in musicals during this period.

10. Since 1960, in what two very different directions has the Broadway musical evolved?

Chapter 12 Popular Music 1830-1960

1. List four likely characteristics of a parlor song. For what audience were parlor songs written? Where did the audience listen?

2. List three likely subjects for parlor songs. What was the most common sentiment in parlor songs?

3. How did Henry Russell contribute to the development of American popular song as songwriter? as performer? What influence did Henry Clay have on Russell's views on songwriting and performing?

4. How did the Hutchinson family contribute to the development of American popular song? In what important way did the typical repertory of the Hutchinson family singers differ from that of Henry Russell?

5. Describe briefly the career of Stephen Foster, songwriter. Was he familiar with many types of songs popular at that time? Did he always write in imitation of existing song types, or...

6. List four types of songs associated with the Civil War. How important to the development of American popular song was the Civil War? Why?

7. To what extent did popular songs written immediately after the Civil War reflect the dramatic changes taking place in American society at that time? What were likely subjects for songs during the period 1865-95?

8. What was old about ragtime songs? What was new?

9. How important was the band as a local community institution in the late 19th century? What role did the band play in community musical and theater activities? Was the band important in disseminating popular songs?

10. Describe briefly the contribution of John Phillip Sousa to the development of the American band.

11. What was the main vehicle for advertising songs before radio and recording?

12. List two crucial media shifts that took place in the popular music industry from 1920 to 1930. How did these shifts affect the way the popular music audience used popular song?

Chapter 13 Ragtime and Pre Jazz

1. List three different genres of ragtime music found in the period 1885-1915.

2. What sorts of songs were important in the evolution of ragtime? What sorts of instrumental music?

3. What sort of musical background did Scott Joplin have?

4. What is syncopation? Why is it important in describing ragtime?

5. What contribution did the military march make to ragtime piano music?

6. What aspect of ragtime derives from Afro-American music? What aspect from European and American popular song?

7. In what way was ragtime unique among Afro-American musics in the way it reached its public?

8. Describe briefly the role of the southern black brass bands in the development of jazz.

Chapter 14 Jazz

Describe briefly the importance of each of the following in the development of jazz:

King Oliver

Jelly Roll Morton

Louis Armstrong

Bix Biederbecke

Duke Ellington

Count Basie

Lester Young

Billie Holiday

Benny Goodman

Charlie Parker

Dizzy Gillespie

Thelonious Monk

Miles Davis

John Coltrane

Ornette Coleman

Cecil Taylor

1. What was the typical form of a New Orleans jazz piece?

2. Describe briefly the texture of New Orleans jazz? How many layers were there? What instruments?

3. In what sorts of performance environments was jazz most likely to be heard in the 1920's?

4. Describe briefly the way a big band of the 1930's grew out of the typical New Orleans or Chicago small ensemble of the 1920's.

5. In what respects is bebop a continuation of the jazz that preceded it? In what respects does it differ from its predecessors?

6. What extra-musical factors made bebop seem more "revolutionary" than it in fact was?

7. List four styles of post-1950 jazz that developed in response to bebop.

8. What is the first stream? The second stream? The third stream?

9. List three influences rock music has had on jazz.

10.When did revivalism become an approach jazz musicians took to their music? In what way does jazz revivalism resemble the revivalist approach to Native American musics? How does it differ?

11. Trace the changing meaning of fusion as it applies to jazz from its beginnings to the present. Consider New Orleans jazz, the big band, Latin jazz, third stream, jazz-rock and world beat ethnic jazz.



Anthony Phillip Heinrich

Louis Moreau Gottschalk

Charles Ives

Aaron Copland

Samuel Barber

Edgar Varese

Harry Partch

Henry Cowell

John Cage

Milton Babbitt

Steve Reich

George Crumb


Chapter 15

1. List two musical attitudes that characterized the Second New England School composers. Name one composer who was a member of this group.

2. List 2 aspects of the background of Louis Moreau Gottschalk that were unusual for an American musician in the early 19th century.

Chapter 16 (do not concern yourself with music discussed in the text we did not listen to)

3. Why was modernism important in the development of an American art music?

4. How did Aaron Copland create an "American" sound?

Chapter 17

5. In what ways did Charles Ives early music experiences train him to approach composition experimentally?

6. Why did Ives choose to make his living outside music?

7. List 3 important musical sources Ives drew upon in his compositions.

8. How did Ives' approach to "what might belong" in a single composition differ from a traditional approach?

9. List four composers besides Ives important to the more experimental tradition of American classical music. For each composer cite one aspect of their music which set them apart from a traditional approach to composition.

Chapter 18

10. List 3 way "modernist" music after 1945 challenges traditional expectations of what music is.

11. What are the two dominant tendencies in post-World War II modernist music? Name a composer important in each.

12. List three ways technology has contributed to the development of modernist music.

Chapter 19

13, List 2 aspects of minimalism that conflict with the ideals of modernism in music.

14. List 2 ways composers sought to reconnect to pre-modernist approaches to music.


PREPARED ESSAY QUESTION (OPTIONAL) Choose either Question 1 OR Question 2 (not both). Answering one of these questions can add up to 15 points to your total points (100 maximum) on the exam.

1. Minstrel Music and Jazz: A Comparison of Origins, Responses and Influences

The emergence of the minstrel show in the the 1830's and the emergence of jazz at the beginning of the 20th century are two examples of the importance of Afro-American musical practice in the development of U. S. music.

Using the questions below as a point of departure, write an essay comparing the way each grows out of, and relates to, the culture of their times. Make sure you anser all the questions.

1. What were the musical roots of the minstrel show? of jazz?

2. What four musical instruments were used in the minstrel show? What three horns were basic to New Orleans jazz? What did both ensembles have in common that set them apart from European styles of music?

2. What race were the first minstrel show performers? the first jazz performers?

3. What was the function of minstrel music? the original function of jazz?

4. Why did the emergence and continuing popularity of the minstrel show even after the Civil War set the tone for later stereotyping of black performers in the theater? Why were jazz musicians not stereotyped in the same way? What sort of stereotyping did jazz musicians encounter?

5. Trace the changing attitude of Afro-American theater performers toward the minstrel show. Trace the changing attitude of jazz musicians toward the function of jazz.

6. Can "classic" minstrel songs, such as Stephen Foster's "Old Uncle Ned", still be performed effectively today? If so, in what kind of setting? If not, why not? Can older styles of jazz still be performed effectively today? How does performing a "classic" jazz repertory--the compositions of Duke Ellington in their original versions, for example--differ from performing the classics of European music?

7. What positive contribution did the minstrel show make to the development of a distinctly American musical theater? What were the most important contributions of jazz to the development of a distinctly American style of classical music, that is, music meant to be listened to as concert music?

2. Music Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

How has the musical world changed for a person like you in the last two centuries? How is it likely to change in this century?

Begin by answering briefly these questions about your own musical life.

How do you use music, on an everyday basis?

What kinds of music is most interesting to you?

How do you most frequently experience emusic? By hearing someone perform live? By listening to recordings? BY making the music yourself?

What kind of music by others do you perform for your own pleasure? When and where do you perform for yourself?

Then consider how a person of your age and experience would have have been involved in the U. S. musical world of 100 years ago (in 1901)? In the musical world of 200 years ago (in 1801)?

As starting points, consider these same questions for the 1801 you and the 1901 you.

How would you have used music on an everyday basis?

What kind of music would have been most interesting to you? (Speculate)

How would most frequently have experienced music? By hearing someone perform live? By making the music yourself?

What kind of music by others could you imagine yourself performing for your own pleasure? When and where would you have been performing for yourself?

How different would the musical world of 100 years ago seem to the you from 200 years ago? What aspects of music would be similar? What would the big changes be?

What would each the two you's of 100 years ago find most surprising about the musical world of today? What aspects of today's musical world would have been familiar to each of the earlier you's?

What about your counterpart 100 years from now (in 2102)? Consider the future versions of these same questions.

How will you use music, on an everyday basis?

What kind of music will be most interesting to you? (Speculate.)

How will you most frequently experience music? By hearing someone perform live? By making the music yourself?

What kind of music by others could you imagine yourself performing for your own pleasure? When and where would you have been performing for yourself?

Will the contrast between today's music and that of 100 years from now be as great as from 100 years ago to now? Why or why not?